Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales. It was observed that the psychotic patients used more the mechanisms of defense undoing, displacement, projection and autistic fantasy. 3. Vaillant GE. En este sentido, el pensamiento dicotómico tiende a ver la realidad en términos de categorías mutuamente excluyentes y no en un continuo. Obviamente no todos los cambios de humor en estos pacientes son de índole defensiva; no olvidemos que la inestabilidad afectiva es uno de los ítems básicos para el diagnóstico, siendo prototípica la “estable inestabilidad” (Schmideberg, 1959) que muestran como rasgo de carácter. Nos referimos a que otro aspecto de la disociación puede ser el que la persona niegue hechos realizado anteriormente, o sentimientos expresados con anterioridad. In the immature/primitive defensive, the borderline patients had higher scores than the psychotic and control group. These patterns are inflexible and pervasive across many situations. Zanarini MC, Weingeroff MA, Frankenburg F. Defense mechanisms associated with borderline personality disorder. The analysis of the relation between the characteristics of personality of cluster C and defensive s showed that neurotic , that includes mechanisms of defense of this organization, such as isolation and displacement, explained in a minimum percentage (9.54%) the characteristics of cluster C. At first sight, this can be surprising because it could be expected that the avoidant, dependent and obsessive–compulsive personality disorders would be associated with the neurotic level of psychological functioning, and therefore, with the mechanisms of defense of this personality organization. These were explained even in a 50.8% exclusively by the predominance of the defensive mature/advanced in a statistical negative sense (the lower use of the defenses that conform this ) and of the defensive immature/ primitive in a statistical positive sense (7.5%) (the preponderance of this defensive style). La relación con el mundo exterior parece normal, demasiado normal, “hiperadaptada” (Cruz Roche, 1995), pero sólo gracias a un esfuerzo imitativo y reproductivo, identificándose con lo que los demás piensan y sienten. Esto refuerza su intrínseca “difusión de la identidad” por no poder mantener un sentido permanente y coherente de sí mismo. México: ETM; 2004. It has been reported that patients with personality disorders use a higher number of neurotic and immature defense mechanisms.5–8 Those with paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders present high scores in immature defense mechanisms;9 in contrast, the cluster C personality disorders use more high level defense mechanisms based on repression.10,11 The borderline personality disorder is related to less use of immature defenses (suppression, sublimation and humor) and the high use of primitive defense mechanisms,9,12 such as splitting, acting–out, omnipotence, projection, projective identification, passive aggression and autistic fantasy. Reflects the predominant characteristics of an individual, particularly with respect to his/her degree of integration of the identity, the types of defensive operations that he/she habitually uses and his/ her test of reality.1 The three evaluated levels of psychological functioning in this investigation were categorized in the following way: high (neurotic), borderline and low (psychotic). b) El trastorno límite de la personalidad descrito por la Asociación Psiquiátrica Americana en el DSM–IV–TR. Again, the multiple regression analysis showed that the use of sublimation and suppression –negative correlation–and pseudo altruism, projection, autistic fantasy and displacement –positive correlation– can predict in a 52.7% the characteristics of personality of cluster C (R2=.527). The psychotic disorders –according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM–IV–TR (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, brief psychotic disorder, and delusional disorder) –were grouped in the psychotic functioning level; the rest of the patients that suffered some anxiety or mood disorder were included in the borderline functioning level when they also had a diagnosis of borderline, narcissistic, antisocial, paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, avoidant, dependent or histrionic personality disorder, or in the neurotic functioning level those patients without personality disorder or with obsessive–compulsive personality disorder. En este aspecto, el pensamiento típico del sujeto límite se expresaría de la siguiente forma: “Algunas personas son buenas y todo respecto a ellas es perfecto. The sample included 102 patients, 20 males (19.6%) and 82 females (80.4%). The clearest difference between the group of patients with BPD (DSM–IV–TR) and the control group was observed in the use of primitive defenses which constitute an attempt to deal with anxiety, but do not allow a good adaptation.3 Patients with borderline personality disorder had a major use of projection, acting out and autistic fantasy, which can be related to the failure in object constancy, the frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment, the identity disturbance, the impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self–damaging, the rotation between the ends of idealization and devaluation, the inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger, and the chronic feelings of emptiness.18, However, these patients also used defenses that are considered theoretically typical of the neurotic organization, such as undoing, displacement, rationalization and isolation.9,10. De esta forma, muchas conductas pueden ser utilizadas para evitar efectos indeseables.
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