[46] They then proceeded to besiege the fortress of the Acrocorinth, which controlled the northwestern Peloponnese. In Mehmed II's first reign, he defeated the crusade led by John Hunyadi after the Hungarian incursions into his country broke the conditions of the truce Peace of Szeged. The capital Mistra fell exactly seven years after Constantinople, on 29 May 1460. The winter brought an outbreak of plague, which would recur annually and sap the strength of the local resistance. [8], The reign of Mehmed I as sultan of the re-united empire lasted only eight years before his death, but he had also been the most powerful brother contending for the throne and de facto ruler of most of the empire for nearly the whole preceding period of 11 years of the Ottoman Interregnum that passed between his father's captivity at Ankara and his own final victory over his brother Musa Çelebi at the Battle of Çamurlu.[9]. [14] According to the contemporary Ottoman historian Neşri, "Sultan Mehmed created all of Istanbul". Serbian independence survived him for only two years, when the Ottoman Empire formally annexed his lands following dissension among his widow and three remaining sons. This resulted in an enduring struggle between different Wallachian rulers backed by Hungarians, Ottomans, and Stephen. Following death of Murad II in 1451, Mehmed II became sultan for second time. Emperor John IV of Trebizond married his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. The fugitive then converted to Christianity, so Ottoman demands for his rendition were refused by the Venetian authorities. He died in 1474. Besides, Mehmed II himself was a poet writing under the name "Avni" (the helper, the helpful one) and he left a classical diwan poetry collection. However Pir Ahmet couldn't enjoy another term. Mehmed was born in 1389 as the fourth son of Sultan Bayezid I (r. 1389–1402) and one of his consorts, the slave girl Devlet Hatun. After winning the Interregnum, Mehmed crowned himself sultan in the Thracian city of Edirne that lay in the European part of the empire (the area dividing the Anatolian and European sides of the empire, Constantinople and the surrounding region, was still held by the Byzantine Empire), becoming Mehmed I. Based on the terms of the treaty, the Venetians were allowed to keep Ulcinj, Antivan, and Durrës. [109] But after some days he died, on 3 May 1481, at the age of forty-nine, and was buried in his türbe near the Fatih Mosque Complex. The Venetians and Shkodrans resisted the assaults and continued to hold the fortress until Venice ceded Shkodra to the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Constantinople as a condition of ending the war. [78] This measure apparently had no great success, since French voyager Pierre Gilles writes in the middle of the 16th century that the Greek population of Constantinople was unable to name any of the ancient Byzantine churches that had been transformed into mosques or abandoned. Nevertheless, with the help of Uzun Hasan, the sultan of the Akkoyunlu (White Sheep) Turkmens, İshak was able to ascend to the throne. [4] The claim was only recognized by the Patriarchate of Constantinople. He led a sizable army from Bursa by land and the Ottoman navy by sea, first to Sinope, joining forces with Ismail's brother Ahmed (the Red). Before the end of the year, however, the 79-year-old Branković died. After his conquest of Bosnia in 1463 he issued the Ahdname of Milodraž to the Bosnian Franciscans, granting them freedom to move freely within the Empire, offer worship in their churches and monasteries, and to practice their religion free from official and unofficial persecution, insult or disturbance. Furthermore, he reportedly had two tutors, one trained in Greek and another in Latin, reading to him Classical histories including those of Laertius, Livy, and Herodotus in the days leading up to the fall of Constantinople. After Skanderbeg died in 1468, the Albanians couldn't find a leader to replace him, and Mehmed II eventually conquered Krujë and Albania in 1478. The Ottomans were unable to conquer any of the major Moldavian strongholds (Suceava, Neamț, Hotin)[65] and were constantly harassed by small scale Moldavians attacks. The last holdout was Salmeniko, in the Morea's northwest. He gathered Italian artists, humanists and Greek scholars at his court, allowed the Byzantine Church to continue functioning, ordered the patriarch Gennadius to translate Christian doctrine into Turkish, and called Gentile Bellini from Venice to paint his portrait[83] as well as Venetian frescoes that are vanished today. Finally Stephen faced the Ottomans in battle. Since it was only 28 years after the fall of Constantinople, there was some fear that Rome would suffer the same fate. After the conquest of Constantinople, Genoese communications were disrupted, and when the Crimean Tatars asked for help from the Ottomans, they responded with an invasion of the Genoese towns, led by Gedik Ahmed Pasha in 1475, bringing Kaffa and the other trading towns under their control. Smederevo was besieged, as was Novo Brdo, the most important Serbian metal mining and smelting center. But Pir Ahmet, a younger son, declared himself as the bey of Karaman in Konya. [72] However, the Crimean khans still had a large amount of autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, while the Ottomans directly controlled the southern coast. [84] He collected in his palace a library which included works in Greek, Persian and Latin. So during the Ottoman campaign in the West, he recaptured his former territory. At home he made many political and social reforms, encouraged the arts and sciences, and by the end of his reign, his rebuilding program had changed Constantinople into a thriving imperial capital. In 1416, Sheikh Bedreddin started his rebellion against the throne. Mehmed left behind an imposing reputation in both the Islamic and Christian worlds. [76][77] To encourage the return of the Greeks and the Genoese who had fled from Galata, the trading quarter of the city, he returned their houses and provided them with guarantees of safety. He delegated significant powers and functions of government to his viziers as part of his new policy of imperial seclusions. [20], After the conquest of Constantinople, Mehmed claimed the title of caesar of the Roman Empire (Qayser-i Rûm), based on the assertion that Constantinople had been the seat and capital of the Roman Empire since 330 AD, and whoever possessed the Imperial capital was the ruler of the Empire. [56] However, following the Sultan's withdrawal Skanderbeg himself spent the winter in Italy, seeking aid. On his return in early 1467, his forces sallied from the highlands, defeated Ballaban Pasha, and lifted the siege of the fortress of Croia (Krujë); they also attacked Elbasan but failed to capture it. He was buried in Bursa, in a mausoleum erected by himself near the celebrated mosque which he built there, and which, because of its decorations of green glazed tiles, is called the Green Mosque. Venice destroyed his fleet off Gallipoli in 1416, as the Ottomans lost a naval war. Karamanids initially centred around the modern provinces of Karaman and Konya, the most important power in Anatolia. This interest culminated in Mehmed's work on building a massive multilingual library that contained over 8000 manuscripts in Persian, Ottoman Turkish, Arabic, Latin, and Greek, among other languages. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. These accounts contribute to his image in Europe at the time as an anti-Christian tyrant, and are not present in Ottoman or other Muslim sources of the time. Aside from his efforts to expand Ottoman dominion throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, Mehmed II also cultivated a large collection of Western art and literature, many of which were produced by Renaissance artists. A few holdouts remained for a time. [93] This centralization was possible and formalized through a kanunname, issued during 1477–1481, which for the first time listed the chief officials in the Ottoman government, their roles and responsibilities, salaries, protocol and punishments, as well as how they related to each other and the sultan. Bosnia officially fell in 1463 and became the westernmost province of the Ottoman Empire. [65] Other sources state that joint Ottoman and Crimean Tartar forces "occupied Bessarabia and took Akkerman, gaining control of the southern mouth of the Danube.
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